Bilingual/ESL Glossary of Terms
Process whereby a person learns to adapt to new surroundings through low anxiety and emotional support to incorporate social and cultural ideas and traditions and to become part of the new culture without losing his/her own sense of self worth as he/she gains new social and cultural ideas and traditions.
Analysis and reporting of student performance using sources that differ from traditional objective responses, such as standardized and norm-referenced tests. Alternative assessments include portfolios, performance-based tasks, and checklists.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
The language ability required for face-to-face communication where linguistic interactions are embedded in a situational context; for example, children acquire BICS from their playmates, the media, and day-to-day experiences. BICS are generally more easily acquired than cognitive academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1984).
Using the computer, this is a method to mark websites for future reference.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Language proficiency associated with schooling and the abstract language abilities required for academic work. A more complex, conceptual, linguistic ability that includes analysis, synthesis and evaluation. (Echevarria, Voght, Short, 2000)
Calculator Based Ranger (CBR)
A motion detector that is connected directly to a graphing calculator.
A test or exercise of reading comprehension in which the student is asked to supply words systemically removed from the text.
Related in origin-word parts that are similar in different languages because they are derived from the same root.
Making adjustments to speech, providing gestures, pictures, visuals, films, and other media so that the message to the student is understandable; one of the components of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol.
Natural usage of a language so that meaning of new words is derived through the context of the situation or text.
A practice or procedure widely observed in a group, especially to facilitate social interaction; a widely-accepted device or technique, as in writing, drama, literature, or painting.
A note-taking and study system developed at Cornell University; is a systematic way of recording notes with an effective method of processing information for learning and recall.
English Language Development
English Language Learners are students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English.
A student who is not a native speaker, but who can function in English at an acceptable level to achieve in class and on standardized tests.
English as a Second Language is an educational approach in which limited English proficient students are instructed in the use of the English language. The instruction is based on a special curriculum that typically involves little or no use of the native language and is usually taught during specific school periods.
English for Speakers of Other Languages; see ESL.
Additional activities that provide practice in applying concepts of the lesson to new material to ensure learning has taken place.
A flow chart or diagram much like the framework for diagramming sentences in English grammar.
Who, what, when, where, why questions to answer when reading or writing, usually used in journalistic style writing or speaking.
New arrivals who have been in the U.S. for less than five years and are very well educated in their native language.
A distinctive category of literary composition such as novel, short story, poem, play.
A general term for teaching approaches for limited English proficient students that do not involve using a student’s native language (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1994).
A text reading technique designed as a cooperative learning activity for all students. A "group" is assigned to read a section of the text. As a group, the students read the section; they discuss what was read, determining the essential information and key vocabulary; the group reports its findings to the rest of the class (who takes notes).
A graphic organizer for reading and gathering information. K – What do we know? W – What do we want to find out? L – What did we learn?
The level at which an individual is able to demonstrate the use of language for both communicative tasks and academic purposes.
Limited-English Proficient is a term used by the federal government, most states, and local school districts to identify those students who have insufficient English to succeed in an English-only classroom (Lessow-Hurley, 1991).
New arrivals who have been in the U.S for less than five years with limited or interrupted schooling in their native country.
Linguistically and Culturally Diverse
Used to identify individuals from homes and communities where English is not the primary language of communication (Garcia, 1991).
Long-Term English Language Learner
Students who have been in the U.S. for seven or more years and are reading and/or writing below grade level.
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
The first language that a person acquires, also termed the mother tongue, primary, or native language.
The second language that a person acquires; i.e., sometime after the acquisition of the first language has begun.
Objectives that imply awareness, reflection, and interaction, and are used in strategies that are integrated, inter-related, and recursive in manner.
Primary or first language spoken by an individual.
Used by some districts to describe ESL programs developed for newly-arriving immigrant students.
In speech, the parts of language other than words that make up specific speech patterns of a person; i.e., pitch, volume, tone, etc.
A scaffolding technique where an English Language Learner is paired with a more experienced reader to read through a part of the reading assignment.
Professional Development and Appraisal System
A writing strategy for increasing student understanding of reading materials, especially in the content areas: Role, Audience, Format, Topic.
Real-life objects that enable students to make connections to their own lives; for example, a bank deposit slip and a check register for a unit on banking.
Reading Proficiency Test in English
A statement that describes indicators of performance that include scoring criteria, on a continuum; may be described as "developmental" (e.g. emergent, beginning, developing, proficient) or "evaluative" (e.g. exceptional, thorough, adequate, inadequate).
A diagrammatic outline or representation (graphic organizer, fishbone graph, Venn diagram); a person’s understanding/perception of the world.
The plural of schema.
Sheltered English: Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English.
An approach to teaching that extends the time students have for receiving English language support while they learn content subjects. Sheltered instruction classrooms, which may include a mix of native English speakers and English language learners (ELLs) or only ELLs, integrate language and content while infusing sociocultural awareness. Teachers scaffold instruction to aid student comprehension of content topics and objectives by adjusting their speech and instructional tasks, and by providing appropriate background information and experiences. The ultimate goal is accessibility for ELLs to grade-level content standards and concepts while they continue to improve their English language proficiency. (Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2000).
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
An explicit model of sheltered instruction that can be implemented by teachers of students with limited English proficiency in order to improve academic success.
Sit up – Lean forward – Activate your thinking – Name key information – Track the talker is a listening strategy based on the ideal that if students participate in positive ways, they enhance their relationship with the teacher that leads to a higher quality of education.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, which replaced the essential elements and gives specific skills and knowledge that must be taught at each grade level for each subject in which students receive instruction.
Total Physical Response is a language learning approach based on the relationship between language and its physical representation or execution. Emphasizes the use of physical activity for increasing meaningful learning opportunities and language retention. A TPR lesson involves a detailed series of consecutive actions accompanied by a series of commands or instructions given by the teacher. Students respond by listening and performing the appropriate actions (Asher, 1981).
A study technique using paper or poster or wall chart where words relevant to the content of the lesson being delivered are written so that students may refer to the words or use them in writing or speaking assignments.